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Comparitive Council Data

Comparitive Council Data
Council Albania Austria Belgium - Dutch Belgium - French & German Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Canada Canada - Québec Croatia Cyprus Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Hungary Iceland Ireland Kosovo Luxembourg Netherlands North Macedonia Norway Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain - Catalonia Sweden Switzerland Turkey UK Impress

Organisational Structure Toggle

Member Location

Candidate EU

EU

EU

EU

Candidate EU

EU

Non EU

Non EU

EU

EU

EU

EU

EU

EU

Non EU

EU

EU

Non EU

EU

Candidate EU

EU

EU

Candidate EU

Non EU

Candidate EU

EU

EU

EU

EU

Non EU

Candidate EU

Non EU

Member Type

Full

Full

Full

Full

Full

Full

Non-member

Non-member

Non-member

Full

Full

Full

Full

Full

Full

Full

Full

Non-member

Full

Full

Non-member

Full

Full

Full

Full

Non-member

Non-member

Full

Full

Full

Full

Full

Member Name

Keshili Shqiptar i Medias

Österreichischer Presserat

Raad voor de Journalistiek

Le Conseil de Déontologie Journalistique

Vijece Za Stampu u Bosnia i Hercegovini

Комисия за журналистическа етика

National NewsMedia Council of Canada

Conseil de Presse du Québec

Novinarskog vijeća časti

Epitropi Dimosiographikis Deontologias

Presse naevnet

Pressinõukogu

Julkisen Sanan Neuvosto

Conseil de déontologie journalistique et de médiation

The Georgian Charter of Journalistic Ethics

Deutsche Presserat

Főszerkesztők Fóruma

Siðanefnd Blaðamannafélags Íslands

Press Council of Ireland and Office of the Press Ombudsman

Këshilli i Mediave të Shkruara të Kosovës

Conseil de Presse Luxembourg

Raad voor de Journalistiek

Совет за етика во медиумите на Македонија (Council of Media Ethics of Macedonia)

Pressens Faglige Utvalg

Savet za štampu

Tlačovo-digitálna rada Slovenskej republiky

Novinarsko častno razsodišče

Consell de la Informació de Catalunya

Medieombudsmannen och Mediernas Etiknämnd

Schweizer Presserat

Basin Konseyí

IMPRESS

Website

https://kshm.al/en/albanian-media-council/

https://www.presserat.at/

https://www.rvdj.be/

https://lecdj.be

https://www.vzs.ba/

http://mediaethics-bg.org/

https://mediacouncil.ca

https://conseildepresse.qc.ca/

https://www.hnd.hr

http://www.cmcc.org.cy/

https://www.pressenaevnet.dk/

https://www.jsn.fi

https://cdjm.org

https://www.qartia.ge/

https://www.presserat.de/

http://foszerkesztokforuma.org/

https://www.press.is/is/log-sidareglur/sidavefur

https://www.presscouncil.ie/

http://presscouncil-ks.org

http://www.press.lu/

https://www.rvdj.nl

https://semm.mk

https://presse.no/

https://savetzastampu.rs/lat/

https://trsr.sk/

https://razsodisce.org/

https://fcic.periodistes.cat/

https://po.se

https://presserat.ch/

https://www.basinkonseyi.org.tr

https://www.impress.press

Year of Foundation

2017

2010

2002

2009

2006

2005

2015

1973

1910

1997

1992

2002

1968

2019

2009

1956

2012

1965

2007

2005

1979

1960

2015

1910

2009

2002

1905

1997

1916

1977

1988

2016

Is there any recognition in the law (or in governmental regulations) of the existence and role of the Press Council?

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

In case there is a recognition of the Council in the law, is that because the organization was established by decree, or did the Council already exist when it was recognized?

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Founded

Not Applicable

Recognised

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Founded

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Founded

Founded

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Recognised

What type of legal entity is the organization?

Association

Association

Association

Association

Association

Foundation

Association

NGO

Association

Association

Public Entity

None

Association

Association

Association

Association

Association

Association

Company Limited by Guarantee

Association

Association

Foundation

Association

Association

Association

Association

Association

Foundation

Association

Foundation

NGO

Community Interest Company

Type of organization

Media Council

Media Council

Media Council

Media Council

Media Council

Media Council

Media Council

Media Council

Ethical Council of Journalists' Association

Media Council

Media Council

Media Council

Media Council

Media Council

Media Council

Media Council

Media Council

Ethical Council of Journalists' Association

Media Council

Media Council

Media Council

Media Council

Media Council

Media Council

Media Council

Media Council

Ethical Council of Journalists' Association

Ethical Council of Journalists' Association

Media Council

Media Council

Media Council

Media Council

Is the organization responsible for the application and/or distribution process for press cards for journalists?

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Do bylaws mention defending press freedom as objective?

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

What are the main tasks that the organization sees for itself?

Promoting Self-regulation

Handling Complaints

Defending Press Freedom

Handling Complaints

Defending & Promoting Ethical Behaviour

Formulation of Ethical Guidelines

Defending & Promoting Ethical Behaviour

Formulation of Ethical Guidelines

Promoting & Monitoring Press Code

Freedom of Expression

Public Awareness & Education

Promoting Quality Journalism

Handling Complaints

Handling Complaints

Defending & Promoting Ethical Behaviour

Handling Complaints

Handling Complaints

Handling Complaints

Handling Complaints

Defending & Promoting Ethical Behaviour

Defending Press Freedom

Promoting Quality Journalism

Defending & Promoting Ethical Behaviour

Defending Press Freedom

Handling Complaints

Defending & Promoting Ethical Behaviour

Handling Complaints

Freedom of Expression

Freedom of Information

Public Protection from false information

Journalist Protection from baseless complaints

Promoting & Monitoring Press Code

Handling Complaints

Formulation of Ethical Guidelines

Issuing Press Cards

Media Policy Government Consultion

Handling Complaints

Formulation of Ethical Guidelines

Public Awareness & Education

Handling Complaints

Defending Press Freedom

Preventing Press Influence from Lobbying

Promoting Quality Journalism

Handling Complaints

Handling Complaints

Promoting & Monitoring Press Code

Handling Complaints

Handling Complaints

Promoting Self-regulation

Mediation or Arbitration

Defending & Promoting Ethical Behaviour

Handling Complaints

Handling Complaints

Mediation or Arbitration

Defending & Promoting Ethical Behaviour

Formulation of Ethical Guidelines

One of the reasons to handle complaints is to keep the press as free as possible from governmental regulation and interference. Besides this implicit reason, does the media council actively promote the freedom of the media?

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

By mobilizing support from citizens and informing students of journalism about ethics in the media

By releasing statements, using social media to spread the Council’s message, write opinion pieces

The organization will try to lobby political actors when it sees that (planned) government regulation is threatening the freedom of the press. Representatives of the Press Council will explain that regulation should be a last resort, since self-regulation can be a solution for many issues.

Providing advice (legal or otherwise) to journalists in order to to protect journalists’ press freedom, and petitioning to governments on behalf of journalists

Active to protect journalists’ press freedom with advice to journalists (legal or otherwise) and petitioning to governments on behalf of journalists

By issuing statements and being signatory to relevant statements of like-minded groups.

The Council does make public statements about press freedom-related issues, such as the access to information act

The Council can take actions if the government or others try to limit the freedom of the press – mostly in the form of advice and statements

Together with other organizations, the Charter is member of the Coalition of Media Advocacy

For instance by giving expert opinion in the policy making process to warrant the freedom of the press

This is something that the journalist union does

By lobbying reform of the defamation act, and occasionally speaking out about issues concerning press freedom (in interviews on tv/radio)

The Press Council of Kosovo has been part of several campaigns defending press freedom through all these years of active presence in the media scene in Kosovo

The organization actively promotes freedom of expression, by initiating different discussions and dialogue with relevant stakeholders, including media, defending of their rights, and reacting in cases of pressures and censorship to media

The association is advocating for quality legislative framework in the field of media, authors' rights, access to information, freedom of speech, labour rights of journalists and status of freelancers. It defends journalists if they face any type of attack on their rights, professional or financial status and reputation.

We organize activities in public sites to proclaim freedom of expression, the journalists' independence as well, as the right to professional secrecy and the conscience clause when there is a clear distortion between the editorial line and the personal convictions of professional information. Also, we speak out via our decisions about complaints from the public.

We lobby, issue public statements, and make judicial applications

In the framework of the council’s objectives and bylaws, is it possible for the council to start an investigation into a publication? (Effectively, to make a complaint themselves?) And if so, do they use this ability?

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

In some cases public statements will be issued about media content

This happens about 5-10 times per year

However, this is rarely/never used in practice

This happens once or twice per year

It is possible to investigate pro-actively, which the Press Council does wherever severe breach of the ethical and professional standards occurred

There is no possibility to investigate individual publications, but the Council could make statements about media coverage in general.

When the Commission notices something problematic in the media, they can make a statement about this

However, this is not done in practice

However, this is very rarely used

However, this is not done in practice

However, this is never done in practice

However, this only happened once in the history of the Council

However, the council can voice an opinion about general matters or in matters of principle

The Press Council can initiate its own analysis on specific important issues in the media, and release opinions/statements about this

This is at Secretary General’s discretion. The current SG did not use this power so far

However, it is rarely used

The Council can signal and take on individual articles / publications, in that case they have the 'complainant' role themselves

A proactive investigation is formally possible, but it has not happened in the last 20 years. For such cases, the Board of the organization would file a complaint.

However, it is rarely used

It is not done in practice

However, it is rarely used

However, it is rarely used

IMPRESS may investigate potential breaches of the Code even where no complaint has been received.

Does the council itself monitor media content for its ethical soundness? If so, in what way?

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

The Council monitors and reports about specific types of coverage in the media, like reporting on crime or corruption

From time to time the media content is monitored by the press council, especially in election years

The Observatoire de la Déontologie de l'Information does this in France

Media monitoring is done in the Media Checker project (whcih has editorial independence from the Charter itself)

The Council monitors the adherence of media to professional standards. This is usually done by analyzing the press complaints over a certain period of time and the tendencies that appear in the media reporting. The Council is particularly focused on identifying and reacting to fake news and sensationalism in the media

Regular monitoring of eight newspapers with national coverage

Has the council ever been sued over any of their decisions or their handling of complaints?

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

Budget Toggle

Total Budget

87275

230000

210000

198000

194950

205000

335915

500000

11000

435000

932000

407000

80000

116764

170000

88700

900000

111000

12000

40000

652750

280650

20000

1111500

Media Companies

28000

107000

99000

205000

118700

500000

11000

250000

407000

153000

540000

30000

442000

95735

18000

13300

Journalist Individual

12000

900

Journalist Associations

28000

7600

75000

17000

360000

10000

135165

900

Govt. Direct

209615

110000

311000

113264

5550

49750

Govt. Indirect

174000

100000

99000

Govt. International

60995

148950

80700

88800

NGOs

26280

46000

80000

8000

16650

1096000

Charity

200

Self Generated

3000

3500

2200

Handling Fees

210750

Staff Toggle

Total Staff

7

3

2

2

5

1

5

5

1

6

1

4

8

10

6

1

3

4

1

2

3

5

5

1

1

1

6

2

3

6

Full Time Employed

3.00

2.75

1.20

1.75

5.00

0.40

3.25

0.00

0.50

4.70

0.40

4.00

8.00

8.30

0.00

0.05

3.00

3.50

1.00

1.60

2.00

5.00

3.00

0.25

1.00

5.75

1.40

1.50

6.00

Paid Staff

7

3

2

2

5

1

4

5

1

6

1

4

8

10

0

1

3

4

1

2

2

5

5

1

1

1

6

2

3

6

Voluntary Staff

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

6

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Is some day-to-day work, done by non-staff, being remunerated?

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

One accountant

Mediators are external professionals

The Council makes use of clerks who work on freelance basis

The IT administrator who maintains the website content

What task does staff spend the most time on?

Media Monitoring

Complaint Handling

Complaint Handling

Complaint Handling

Complaint Handling

Mediation

Complaint Handling

Complaint Handling

Complaint Handling

Complaint Handling

Complaint Handling

Complaint Handling

Complaint Handling

Complaint Handling

Complaint Handling

Media Checker Project

Complaint Handling

Complaint Handling

Complaint Handling

Complaint Handling

Complaint Handling

Press Card Approval

Complaint Handling

Complaint Handling

Writing Media Analysis Reports

Complaint Handling

Complaint Handling

Complaint Handling

Complaint Handling

Complaint Handling

Complaint Handling

Complaint Handling

Complaint Handling

Members & Member Types Toggle

Individual media outlets

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Umbrella organizations of media outlets

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Individual journalists

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

Journalist unions or organizations

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Others

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

Newspapers

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Magazines

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Digital media

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Television

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Radio

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

News and press agencies

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

Others

No

No

Production companies

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Student Publications

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

What criteria exist to become a member?

Being Active Journalist

Signing Ethical Code

Signing Ethical Code

Complaint Handling Cooperation

No Predefined Criteria

Being Formally Registered

Independant Editorial Work

Meeting Affiliation Requirements

Signing Ethical Code

Signing Ethical Code

Complaint Handling Cooperation

Signing Ethical Code

Having 2 Years Experience

Creating Journalistic Content

Independant Editorial Work

Publishing Periodically / Regularly

Being a Legal Entity

Creating Journalistic Content

Adhere to Specific Owner Requirements

Signing Ethical Code

Having a Responsible Editor

Signing Ethical Code

Being Active Journalist

Recommendation from another Journalist

Independant Editorial Work

Editorial Staff

Publishing Periodically / Regularly

Complaint Handling Cooperation

Displaying Ethical Guidelines on Website

Agreeing to Publish Council Decisions

Being Active Journalist

Signing Ethical Code

Complaint Handling Cooperation

Adhering to Journalistic Standards

Existing for at least one year

Signing Ethical Code

Adhering to Journalistic Standards

Funding Transparency

Being Formally Registered

Not Applicable

Representing Journalists or Media Organisations

Signing Ethical Code

Complaint Handling Cooperation

Funding Transparency

Adhere to Specific Owner Requirements

Having Clear Editorial Structure

Signing Ethical Code

Having a Responsible Editor

Having a Responsible Editor

Being Active Journalist

Signing Ethical Code

Agreeing to submit to Council Jurisdiction

Being Active Journalist

Signing Ethical Code

Having a Responsible Editor

Being Formally Registered

Not Applicable

Signing Ethical Code

Complaint Handling Cooperation

Having a Responsible Editor

Creating Journalistic Content

Having Clear Editorial Structure

What are some of the reasons that organizations and journalists participate in the media council?

Ideological support

Seal of Quality

International Knowledge Network

Free or Low Cost

Seal of Quality

Ideological support

Free or Low Cost

Seal of Confidence

Access to Seminars & Advice

Commitment to Ethical Behaviour

Protection from Political Pressures

Independant Assistence

Seal of Quality

Subsidies

Seal of Confidence

Legal Mitigation

Seal of Quality

Seal of Confidence

Press Cards

Protection of Journalists' Rights

Free Legal Advice

Seal of Quality

Subsidies

Protection of Sources

Access to Seminars & Advice

Survey Participation

EML Circulation Table Participation

International Knowledge Network

Seal of Quality

To stand out

Access to Seminars & Advice

Ideological support

Involvement in Projects

Seal of Quality

Seal of Quality

Seal of Confidence

Legal Mitigation

Fight Disinformation

Tax Benefits

Not Applicable

Independant Regulation

Seal of Quality

Seal of Confidence

Access to Seminars & Advice

International Knowledge Network

To stand out

Seal of Quality

Seal of Quality

Fight Disinformation

Seal of Confidence

Commitment to Ethical Behaviour

Seal of Quality

Ideological support

Access to Seminars & Advice

Ideological support

Involvement in Projects

Commitment to Ethical Behaviour

Seal of Quality

Not Applicable

Commitment to Ethical Behaviour

Seal of Quality

Access to Seminars & Advice

International Knowledge Network

Ideological support

Protection from Political Pressures

Independant Assistence

What proportion of the media landscape does the council's membership cover?

Minority

Majority

Majority

Majority

Majority

Majority

Majority

Majority

Majority

Majority

Majority

Majority

Minority

Minority

Majority

Minority

Majority

Majority

Majority

Majority

Majority

Majority

Majority

Majority

Majority

Minority

Minority

Majority

Majority

Minority

Minority

Scope Toggle

Print Newspapers

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Print Magazines

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Television

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Radio

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Websites

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Weblogs (produced by media outlets or independent bloggers)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Podcasts (produced by media outlets or independent content creators)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Nonfiction books

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

If published by media outlet

Never encountered so far, would be decided when a complaint about this arrives

To be decided

If published by media outlet

Posts by media outlets on social media

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Posts by individual journalists on social media

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

If writing in capacity of journalist

If writing in capacity of journalist

If the account is used for professional purposes

User comments on the website of a media outlet (or the moderation thereof)

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Never encountered so far, would be decided when a complaint about this arrives

To be decided

Never encountered so far, would be decided when a complaint about this arrives

Never encountered so far, would be decided when a complaint about this arrives

If these comments are pre-moderated

User comments on the social media page of a media outlet (or the moderation thereof)

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Never encountered so far, would be decided when a complaint about this arrives

To be decided

Never encountered so far, would be decided when a complaint about this arrives

Never encountered so far, would be decided when a complaint about this arrives

If these comments are pre-moderated

Never encountered so far, would be decided when a complaint about this arrives

Content produced by news agencies (even if this content is not re-published by other media)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

Future Toggle

What are some of the ways in which the media council has power and impact?

Main impact is that the awareness about self-regulation among the public and within the media sector itself has increased.

Via its decisions, the press council is able to spark some public debate. A negative decision for media is taken seriously – other media report about these and the debate resonates on social media as well. Guidelines and advice that the Press Council publishes is implemented by the media.

Journalists are more aware of the principles and abide by them to a higher degree. This is true for principles like the right of reply and respect for privacy (especially for vulnerable people)

There is a learning effect in the sector – new issues are tackled by statements, explanations, and decisions from the Council; the Council receives many questions from journalists about deontology (before publishing); complainants seem to be learning as their questions seem to get more sophisticated

The fact that the Press Council’s decisions are published and cited, and that representatives of the press councils have been called on as expert witness in trials

People submit complaints, which shows that they trust the Council’s activities; the electronic media regulator forwards cases to the Council; and media/journalists react to unfavourable decisions, which shows that they do care about them

The government and news industry recognize that access to third party complaints resolution is a critical part of trusted, legitimate news media, and have cited that requirement in eligibility documents for financial assistance to the media. The conversation around de-indexing content and reputational privacy has shifted in the wake of the NNC putting that issue on the table. A member who initially objected strongly to our process has become more compliant in responding to and posting decisions.

The press council has been an integral part of the media landscape in Québec for 50 years and – in stark contrast to the region – trust in media is high (80%)

Journalists that do genuine reporting take time to answer the complaints and do their best to defend their choices

Representatives of the media council are invited by media to comment on issues about media ethics; journalists ask the council for advice; council has a voice in the public debate

Media see it as a quality label when they can put the Council’s logo on their website to show that they are covered. Editors and journalist’s organizations ask representatives of the council to speak and explain the latest jurisprudence. The Ethical Code is used by media outlets as a basis to formulate their own set of guidelines

Increasingly, people from the public reach out to the press council to ask questions; all media channels publish decisions of the council; journalists ask questions about ethics. Specifically, by including one local newspaper in the system, their quality of reporting has been improved

The Council is often contacted when issues around media ethics are in the news; its decisions are covered in the media

Among journalists, the recognition is increasing. Journalists are asking the Charter questions about ethical matters, and the membership is increasing over time. Among the public, the number of complaints is increasing, which shows an increased awareness.

One is that self-regulation is well-accepted, both by the public. The (increasing) number of complaints attests to that. Two is that the majority of the media companies accept the system by contributing (financially) and cooperating with the complaints procedures. The vast majority of editors and journalists replies when the Press Council presents them with a complaint from the public.

Media who have joined are more aware of ethical considerations in reporting, and getting media and complainants to talk about their dissatisfaction with the coverage has always been an educational experience for journalists and editors.

Surveys show that journalists take the Code of Ethics seriously and abide by the guidelines in their daily work, and the surveys also shows that journalists respect the work of the Ethical Council. The number of upheld complaints has declined over time, which suggests a learning effect in the sector.

We see that the media accept our decisions and publish them, as we require, with due prominence. The publication of an upheld complaint is seen to inflict reputational damage on a newspaper and is regarded as a significant deterrent to breaches of the Code of Practice. Additionally, the Office of the Press Ombudsman and the Press Council are seen as authoritative voices on the subject of ethics and professionalism in practicing journalism, and representatives are called upon by the wider media (including broadcasting) to discuss these topics.

Press council has become a forum for media to meet and discuss (whereas there was hostility between media before). Decisions have impacted media coverage and led to a sensibilization about best practices to report.

The Council’s advice in ethical matters is requested, and its opinion is heard in matters relating to press freedom and media ethics

Media perceive upheld complaints as something bad; decisions lead to debate in newsrooms and in the media in general, showing that they do care; most of the complaints are published in a faithful way by the media, even though there are no ways of forcing them to

Media cooperate with and appreciate the activities of the Council; press releases and statements are regularly covered in the media; media appearances happen on a daily level, civil society organizations invites us to take part in their activities; international organizations quote the Press Council’s findings in their analyses.

Decisions of the Council are actively used by media outlets for internal education, decisions are covered in the media

We see that our decisions and monitoring data are used by media industry and other actors, that the media council is included in government documents and in the government's action plan for implementation of media strategy, and last, the bylaws and rules for co-financing of media content in public interest include consultations with council

Press Council is respected with regards to their explanation of what ‘good professional journalism ethics’ means; Press Council representatives are invited for (public) debates about ethical journalism

Journalists respond to complaints, cooperate with the procedures, and are unhappy when council rules against them, which shows that they care. The number of complaints has been consistent over time, which is a sign that the council is transparent in its workings and respected by the public.

The positive appreciation of our work by the public and civil institutions, as well as the increasing number of complaints we receive that shows that the public trusts the work of the Council

The fact that media cooperate shows that the institution is well-respected and that complaint handling procedures are taken seriously

The Council is known among the public and the number of complaints is substantial. The decisions and opinions of the Council are respected and function as guidance for journalists.

Most people in Turkey have heard of us, although few know/understand our precise role

Existence of independent regulatory body in itself already shows the power and impact, it shows that there’s more awareness of the importance of ethics. First time that there are proper, front-page corrections done by media outlets, and the requirement to publish the decisions on social media are also being followed by the media. Whistleblowers have reached out to Impress to report wrongdoings in media companies. By including left-wing partisan media, Impress has succeeded to improve their standards

What future challenges does the media council foresee?

An upcoming law that regulates online news coverage, which is a threat to press freedom; no structural financing, meaning a dependence on project-funding and international donors

A big challenge for print media is that the advertisement market is declining. For the Council, it is a challenge to adapt to the online environment and get online-only media, as well as tv and radio, on board. Also, the complaints procedure should be simplified.

One challenge is to adapt the ethical guidelines for topics like AI (Artificial Intelligence) and the use of algorithmically constructed data, such as Twitter trending topics. Another future challenge is to promote the model of press councils as alternative for regulation/certification of media. For the Flemish media, there is the danger that commercial pressures might lead to a less clearly demarcation between journalism and advertisement (for example, native advertising).

One, teaching the public about journalistic rights (not just about the duties that journalists have); Two, the Council could be misused to put pressure on journalists, media, and legal system; Three, is the challenge to have a voice at the European table

The proliferation of hate speech in the media, huge political influence on editorial content, limited amount of ‘serious’ journalism and investigative journalism, divided audiences without common narrative about common topics.

Four challenges: from government, there are attempts at regulating media; rise of internet media and un-institutional actors, raising the question what ‘media’ are; economically, legacy media are dying; specifically for tv: a bigger importance of entertainment over ethics.

First, there are financial challenges, although legislated deals between Google and Facebook and the media, could offer relief.

The main challenge is financial – since the media that finance the Council are struggling in terms of business, it is becoming increasingly difficult for them to contribute to the Council; a second challenge is to increase the awareness of the Council and its workings, both among journalists and towards the public; third challenge is how to draw borders around ‘journalism’ when any individual can start their own publication (outside of the traditional media companies)

The association is being slapped with lawsuits; enormous amount of political pressure on journalism

AI and algorithmic serving of custom-tailored content to readers, which makes it difficult to establish afterwards what actually was the content of the article.

Challenge is whether the Code and practices of the Council should be updated because of online media. More generally, should the Code remain general in nature, or should it stipulate specific guidelines?

Press Council may become irrelevant for new media forms such as independent vloggers (unclear whether they will be interested in joining self-regulation system); funding of Press Council in light of financial difficulties for legacy media; potential decline of trust from public in the media which further increases financial difficulties

There is a difficulty to find structural funding for this organization. Also, it is challenging to increase the awareness about the Charter and media self-regulation in general.

The German media system is generally stable. One challenge is that the increasing number of complaints that the Presserat receives may necessitate more resources. Another concern is that the content on social media is not being evaluated by any independent institution. Big internet companies do their moderation themselves, but are inherently biased (for financial reasons), so this leaves a lot of content for which there is no impartial arbiter. Because of their limited capacity, press councils cannot deal with this, either.

Keeping the Council afloat with a limited budget and limited resources is the main challenge for the future. Increasing public awareness of the Council is another goal.

The Icelandic media market is very small and faces declining advertisements (revenues that are now scooped up by Facebook and Google). In addition, the number of subscribers to traditional media outlets is declining.

Readership and revenues of legacy media outlets (print) are in decline. The most difficult challenge for media and the press council alike is to stay relevant in this environment.

Financial sustainability is a big issue, since the council is dependent on grants and donors for their day-to-day functioning. Another is that there may be initiatives from the government to regulate online media, which may harm journalistic freedom.

For the media sector: Convergence of media and its implications for plurality of content; to what extent the independence of the press can be guaranteed when the media are dependent on the state for a large chunk of their revenues. For press council: brand recognition among the general public should be enhanced; the structure of the press council (devised around legacy media) makes it hard to adapt to developments in the media sector

For the Council, one challenge is to have a higher proportion of decisions published in the media outlets. Another challenge is to persuade those editors / journalists who currently refuse to cooperate with complaints procedure. For the Dutch media landscape, challenges are the possible consequences of the COVID-19-crisis, as well as a decline in advertising revenues.

No structural funding, so continuation of funding is an issue; certain media distancing themselves from the press council with own, politically-motivated initiatives; overrepresentation of internet portals in the complaints, which might give the impression that the press council exists only for these media

For the press council, its capacity to handle complaints could be an issue (a new complaints officer has just been hired for this reason). Another challenge is to recruit digital media for the self-

Financing is an ongoing challenge

Spread of disinformation; financial sustainability of the print press (in the light of declining advertisement income); potentially having to bring broadcast media into the system of self-regulation

The membership of the association is declining; the increasing work pressure in newsrooms makes it difficult for journalists to do media council work on a voluntary basis; there is the question of whether or not publishers should be included in the system of self-regulation

The Covid-19 impact in media and the public

To get new, digital-only media involved in the self-regulatory mechanism

The biggest challenge is the precarious financial situation of the organization

Financial issues and governmental pressure, including judicial harrassment

Political climate in the UK undermines fact-based journalism; UK Government wants to regulate online forms of journalism. Also, Impress does currently not include the media outlets that would benefit from regulation the most (such as the tabloids)

Complaints Statistics Toggle

Complaints Lodged

5

302

63

161

316

188

167

32

160

84

318

0

2038

6

186

140

1

96

70

493

117

20

39

36

620

115

45

41

Complaints Admissible

5

266

59

81

288

78

111

130

84

65

0

53

1457

4

75

1

75

70

335

77

18

30

22

89

80

42

14

Complaints Treated

5

58

69

40

288

41

93

98

90

66

0

62

563

3

75

135

1

64

56

329

67

18

36

22

134

67

42

15

Complaints Upheld

3

36

18

8

53

10

31

32

22

23

0

52

287

0

10

73

1

16

38

69

42

3

19

13

86

20

28

5

Complaints Not Upheld

2

18

12

50

17

46

57

59

40

0

9

276

3

15

62

0

32

16

204

21

8

17

7

27

28

14

6

Other

22

33

20

185

14

16

9

9

3

1

50

0

16

2

56

4

7

0

2

21

19

0

4

Complaints Process Toggle

When someone has a complaint, can they take it to the media council without contacting the media first?

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

A complainant is required to contact the editor or journalist first

However, when complainants want a comment on social media deleted, they are referred to the media first

A complainant is required to contact the editor or journalist first

A complainant is required to contact the editor or journalist first

A complainant is required to contact the editor or journalist first

Except for regional stations of DR, TV 2 of TV 2; or, if it’s about de-indexation, anonymization, or request for removal. In these cases, the complainant should contact the respective media outlet.

However, not always – if the complaint concerns an error, the complainant is required to get in touch with the media outlet first

The complainant does not have to contact the media outlet first, but it is recommended that they do

A complainant is required to contact the editor or journalist first

No, a complainant is required to contact the editor or journalist first

No, a complainant is required to contact the editor or journalist first

No, a complainant is required to contact the editor or journalist first

The complainant does not have to contact the media outlet first, but it is recommended that they do

No, a complainant is required to contact the editor or journalist first

Is it possible to submit a complaint by regular mail?

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Is it possible to submit a complaint by e-mail?

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Is it possible to submit a complaint by fax?

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

Is it possible to submit a complaint by telephone?

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

Is it possible to submit a complaint via a form on the media council's website?

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Is it possible to submit a complaint via social media?

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Can one complain about any type of media content, or does the publication have to be about the complainant in any way?

No

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

A personal stake is not necessary, unless the matter is about violating privacy, rights of an interviewee, or right to reply (to negative publicity)

One has to be directly involved in the coverage

Are there any time restrictions for submitting a complaint?

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

1 month for daily newspapers, 2 months for weekly publications, no time restriction for online media.

One Month

1 month for non-members, 3 months for members

90 days (unlimited for online)

30 days

Two Months

Are anonymous complaints accepted?

No

Depends

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Anonymous complaints are not always accepted – the Senate decides on a case-by-case basis

Does the complainant have to indicate which part of the Code of Ethics they think has been breached?

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Is submitting a complaint free?

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Is it possible to complain about any media, regardless of whether they have chosen to join the media council?

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Does the media council try to mediate between media and complainants to work out an alternative solution?

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

The Council uses their informal contacts with colleague working for media outlets to try and find a solution

The Senate can start an Ombudsman procedure before deciding on the case

Ombudsman or one of the parties may suggest a solution to resolve the matter without a decision from the Council

Parties are asked about whether they would like to make use of the possibility for mediation; Press Council will then talk to the other party

There is an obligatory mediation procedure, in which the council tries to find a solution between the parties, such as a retraction or correction

Because of a lack of resources and capacity, the Council does not mediate by default, but the possibility is always (as stipulated in the bylaws) suggested to the complainant

This is part of our complaints-handling process

External professionals try to find a solution that both parties can agree on

At least not formally – there might be informal mediation to see if a solution can be reached before adjudication

If the secretary sees a possibility of a compromise between the parties, they propose this to complainant and media

There is a possibility to mediate, but it is rarely used in practice

When the secretary of the organization sees a possible solution, he tries to bring the parties together to discuss this possibility

The Council tries to organize a meeting between the journalist/editor-in-chief and the complainant in order to resolve matters

The case officer will advise on a possible conciliation opportunity and can facilitate an informal and confidential mediation between the two parties to find a resolution

If the press council sees an opportunity for reconciliation (correction, follow-up interview), it tries to get parties to discuss this possible solution

The Executive Director reaches out to the two parties and tries to find out if a solution (reply, follow-up interview, apology) could resolve the matter

Mediation is part of the complaints-handling process

There is a possibility to mediate by inviting the two parties to meet and discuss a possible solution

There is a (theoretical) possibility for the Press Council to negotiate an apology, retraction, follow-up, or other solution

The council will try to arrange an informal mediation

The Media Ombudsman can attempt to resolve matters by proposing a solution to both parties

This is part of our complaints-handling process

When starting the complaints process, does the complainant have to promise not to take the matter to court (or waive their right to do so)?

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Will the media council handle complaints about content that is being treated by a court simultaneously?

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Before the meeting at which a decision about a complaint is taken, does anyone check whether or not the formal requirements are met?*|*Who verifies that the formal requirements are met?

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

By the executive office

By the Secretary-General

By the secretary-general (or by the Council, in unusual cases)

By the complaints officer

By the president and the secretary

Staff determine whether a complaint falls within its mandate

By the executive office + admissibility committee

By the secretary

By the executive office

By the secretary

By the assigned complaint officer + the Chair

By three members of the Council

By the secretary

By the executive office and the Chair of the Committee

By the Chair + the legal advisor

By the CEO of the association

By case officer + Ombudsman

By the complaints officer

By the President

By a vice-chair and the secretary

By the executive office

By the Secretary-General

By the secretary-general

By the Chair

By the Secretary-General

By an employee, in consultation with the chair and the secretary-general

By Ombudsman

By the executive director

The secretary-general

By the executive office

Before the meeting at which a decision about a complaint is taken, does anyone check that the complaint is within the media council's scope?*|*Who verifies that the complaint is within the media council's scope?

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

By the executive office

By the Secretary-General

By the secretary-general (or by the Council, in unusual cases)

By the complaints officer

By the president and the secretary

Staff may decline to accept a complaint if it is not within its mandate

By the executive office + admissibility committee

By the secretary

By the executive office

By the secretary

By the assigned complaint officer + the Chair

By three members of the Council

By the secretary

By the executive office and the Chair of the Committee

By the Chair + the legal advisor

By the CEO of the association

By case officer + Ombudsman

By the complaints officer

By the President

By a vice-chair and the secretary

By the executive office

By the Secretary-General

By the secretary-general

By the Chair

By the Secretary-General

By an employee, in consultation with the chair and the secretary-general

By Ombudsman

By the executive director

The secretary-general

By the executive office

Before the meeting at which a decision about a complaint is taken, is it possible to dismiss the case when it is clearly baseless?*|*If it is possible to dismiss a baseless complaint, who makes this decision?

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

The Chair of the Senate (in case it concerns a procedure in which someone is personally affected)

By the Secretary-General

By the secretary-general (or by the Council, in unusual cases)

Staff may reject a complaint

By the Chair

By the secretary

By the assigned complaint officer + the Chair

By three members of the Council

By the secretary

By the executive office and the Chair of the Committee

By case officer + Ombudsman

By the President

By a vice-chair and the secretary

The secretary general can suggest that the complaint receives a simplified treatment

By the secretary-general

By the Chair

By an employee, in consultation with the chair and the secretary-general

By Ombudsman

By the president (advised by executive director)

The secretary-general

If a case is dismissed on formal grounds, or because there clearly was no ethical wrongdoing, is it possible for the complainant to appeal to that decision?

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Only in case it concerns a procedure in which someone is personally affected

On the basis of factual errors

Complainants cannot appeal the decision, but are informed about the intention to give a simplified treatment beforehand. They are able to comment this intention before a final decision about this is made.

By an employee, in consultation with the chair and the secretary-general (the other council members will be notified)

After consideration by the Ombudsman, the complainant could bypass the Ombudsman and go to the Media Council itself instead.

Before the meeting at which a decision about a complaint is taken, does anyone write a summary of the case?*|*Who makes a summary of the case?

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

By the executive office

By Secretary-General, together with the reporting commission (three council members) for that particular case

By the secretary-general

By the complaints officer

Designated Council member

Staff summarize the complaint and make a recommendation to the Council

By an analyst

By the executive office

By the assigned complaint officer

By three members of the Council

By the secretary

By the executive office

By one council member

By the President

By the Staff

By the secretary-general

By one member of the council

By one member of the council

The secretary employee

Ombudsman and staff

The secretary-general

By the executive office (depending on requirements of the case)

Before the meeting at which a decision about a complaint is taken, does anyone summarize decisions that the council made in similar cases in the past?*|*Who summarizes decisions that the council made in similar cases in the past?

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

By the Secretary-General

By the secretary-general

By the complaints officer

By an analyst

By the executive office

By the secretary

By the assigned complaint officer

By the secretary

The preparation may include this summary of previous decisions, by the executive office

By legal advisor

By the President

Sometimes, by the secretary

By the executive director

By the secretary-general and the presiding member of the complaints commission

The secretary employee

By one Council member and executive director

By the executive office (depending on requirements of the case)

Before the case heads to the full complaint-handling body to take a decision, does someone advice whether the case should be upheld or not?

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

By the executive office, upon a request from the Senate

By Secretary-General, together with the reporting commission (three council members) for that particular case

By the secretary-general (in written procedure) or a commission of 3 council members (in oral procedure)

Designated Council member

Staff make a recommendation to Council based on internal discussion

By the executive office

By the assigned complaint officer + the Chair

By three members of the Council

By legal advisor

By the staff members

By the secretary-general and the presiding member of the complaints commission

By one member of the council

The secretary employee

Ombudsman and staff

By the executive office (depending on requirements of the case)

Before the case heads to the full complaint-handling body to take a decision, does anyone write a draft decision (that can be amended based on the discussion of the decision-making body)?

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

By secretary-general, together with the reporting commission (three council members) for that particular case

By the secretary-general (in written procedure) or a commission of 3 council members (in oral procedure)

Designated Council member

By the executive office

By the assigned complaint officer + the Chair

By the Staff

By the secretary-general and the presiding member of the complaints commission

By one member of the council

By one member of the council

The president and the secretary general

Ombudsman and staff

By one Council member and executive director

By the executive office (depending on requirements of the case)

Are there any other preparations done before the complaint is treated by the decision-making body?

No

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

If necessary, the executive office will gather extra substantive/content-related information

If necessary, the designated Council member will verify factual information

Staff may conduct related research into facts and journalistic standards, analysis of the complaint, summary of the issues, and recommendation of a resolution or decision.

The Council tries to establish all factual information regarding the complaint and the publication

Upon request from council members, secretary can gather more factual information

If necessary, the assigned complaint officer will gather extra substantive/content-related information

The executive office makes sure that all material, relevant for making a decision, is available

If necessary to make a decision, the executive director will gather extra (background) information

The draft decision is compared with past decisions to ensure consistency in the jurisprudence

Information and fact-finding, by the office

How are the people who prepare the complaints for decision-making appointed?

Not applicable

Executive office consists of employees, Senate Chairs are chosen by the Board of the Association

Secretary-general is full-time employee; reporting commission are selected from the full Council (1 journalist; 1 from media; 1 from public)

Secretary-general is full-time employee; commission of three is drawn from the full Council

Complaints officer is a full time employee

Staff members are full-time employees

Analyst is employee; admissibility committee is selected by the Board of Directors

Secretary is an employee of the journalists' association

Chair is recommended by the president of the Supreme Court, and formally appointed by the Minister of Justice

Secretary is part-time employee

Complaint officer is employee, chair of the organization is appointed for 4 year term via open vacancy by the annual meeting of the Association

The members are people that represent the journalists, the publishers, and the public, respectively

The secretary is a full-time employee of the organization

The executive office consists of paid employees, chairpersons are chosen among committee members

CEO is employed by the Union

Case officer and ombudsman are employees, Ombudsman is selected by Press Council, following public competition

Complaints officer and legal advisor are employees of the organization

President is someone representing the public, traditionally a judge, who is appointed by the General Assembly of the organization

Vice-chair is appointed by board, secretary is employee

Executive director is appointed every four years by the board of the organization

The secretary-general is appointed by the managing board (after public competition). The chair is delegated by the founding organizations on a turn-by-turn basis.

Secretary-General is employee; the council member volunteers to prepare the case

They are appointed by the board of the association

The position of the Ombudsman, when vacated, will be filled by Board of Association, which searches for candidates. The official appointment is done by a group of three: the chair of the National Press Club, the chair of the Bar Association, and the Parliamentary Ombudsman.

Executive director is full-time employee, Council members and President of the Council are elected by the board of the Foundation

The secretary-general is appointed by the Supreme Council/High Board

Office workers are full-time employees

How many members (including substitutes) does the full complaints commission have?

5

33

36

40

11

10

15

22

11

17

16

10

27

60

9

28

5

1

36

4

24

7

7

11

9

11

14

32

21

40

7

What types of groups are part of the complaints commission?

All 5 are academics or experts

All members are journalists, the chairs are lawyers

12 delegates of the publishers; 12 delegates of the journalist association; 12 members of the public/experts

6 journalists from journalist association, 6 editors, 2 editors-in-chief, 6 members from civil society. Each member has a substitute.

Journalists, academics, and legal practitioners (no fixed number of these categories stipulated)

Journalists, professors, and lawyers (but no quotum)

The Council consists of 8 members of the public ('public directors') and 7 representatives of news media organizations ('professional directors')

One president (from the public), 7 journalist members, 7 media company members, 7 members from the public

11 journalists

5 members from civil society, 12 from the media sector

One chair (supreme court justice), one vice-chair (lawyer), two members from the public, two editors, two journalists. Times two as every member has a deputy.

6 people from news media, 4 outsiders

1 Chair, 5 (+5 substitutes) from the public, 8 (+8 substitutes) from the media

9 journalists (3 from the capital, 6 from the rest of the country)

14 people delegated from publishers; 14 from the unions

There is no standing council, but instead there is a list of 50 people (journalists, retired journalists, experts, and academics) who may be asked to sit on the complaints commission

The Committee consists almost always of people who are non-active or retired journalists (but there is no guideline that stipulates this)

The Press Ombudsman

36 Journalists

4 members + 1 non-voting president

One (non-voting) Chair, 4 vice-chairs (all magistrates); 10 members with background in journalism; 10 representatives of the public (5 experts & 5 citizens)

2 representatives of media owners; 2 representatives proposed by Association of Journalists; 3 representatives of the public (experts in media, ethics, law)

2 journalists; 2 editors; 3 lay people

3 representatives of the Media Association, 1 representative of Local press, 2 representatives of Independent Association of Journalists of Serbia, 2 Representatives of the Journalist Association of Serbia, 3 representatives of the public

9 journalists, 2 representatives of the public

No designated groups

4 judges; 16 representatives of the media; 12 members of the public

15 media professionals, 6 representatives of the public

12 journalists (3 of whom are elected from cities outside Istanbul by the Board of Members); 14 representatives of readers; the President of the Press Council Solidarity and Development Foundation; 1 representative to be determined by the press organs with circulation rate of more than 100 thousand; 1 representative from websites; 3 representatives of journalist associations; Representatives of Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir Bar Associations with the Turkish Bar Association; and representatives of institutions providing ethics services.

People with different backgrounds, but who are not politically active or active journalists / editors (only after 5 year cooldown)

Who appoints members of body that decides on complaints?

Council members are appointed by the general assembly of the organization

Elected by the board of the Press Council

12 members appointed by publishers; 12 members appointed by journalist association; 12 members chosen from the public/experts

6 journalists from journalist association, 6 editors nominated by media members, 2 editors-in-chief, chosen by journalists and media, 6 from civil society by public call and chosen by journalists and media. Formal appointment is by the executive board of the Association.

Board draft a list of people who would be good candidates for the Council, and appoints people from this list

Directors are nominated by a nominations committee composed of existing directors. Public directors are selected based on their credibility in their respective communities and prior board experience. Professional directors are typically selected by their respective news organizations.

Journalist members are nominated by the journalist union, media members are nominated by media companies, president and public members are selected by the Board (after public announcement of the vacancy) and by recommendation of a selection committee

Members can run for the council and are elected by the General Assembly of the association

Members from the media are nominated by their respective organization (3 nominated by the union of journalists, 3 by the media publishers, 1 by the public broadcaster, 2 from commercial tv stations, 1 from commercial radio, and 2 from online media). These members choose the 5 civil society members

Formally, everyone by Minister of Justice. Chair is recommended by president of Supreme Court. Journalist-members are recommended by Journalist Union. Editor-members recommended by editors association, TV stations can nominate members. Laypeople recommended by Danish association for adult education

Media outlets can recommend certain people, the newsmedia association board formally appoints them

Eight members proposed by member organizations (3 year term); Five members of the public, selected by Council via public vacancy (3 year term)

Elected from the members of the organization

The four ‘trägerorganisationen’ each delegate 7 people

Member media nominate suitable candidates for the list

3 members nominated by the union, 1 by the publishers, 1 by an ethical institute (liked to the university)

Ombudsman is selected by Press Council, following public competition

Each of the 36 members (media outlets) of the organization selects one person

Appointed by the Press Council itself

Chair: no specific procedure; vice-chair by referral; journalist members proposed by editors’ association or journalist association; public members: public vacancy; experts: by referral. Interviews with secretary and chair, formal appointment by Board.

The managing board of the organization

Journalists are recommended by the journalist union; Editors are recommended by the editors’ association; Lay members are recommended by a group of four (secretary-general, 2 people from society selected by the board, and one former lay member)

The four founding organizations (Media Association, Local press, Independent Association of Journalists of Serbia, Journalist Association of Serbia) appoint their representatives, representatives of the public are elected via public competition

3 members proposed by the syndicate of journalists, 3 proposed by print media association, 3 proposed by internet media association. No rules on what background these people should have, but they cannot be active journalists

5 of the journalists selected by association; the other 4 by the general assembly of the union. One member of the public is nominated by association's general assembly; the other one is nominated by the union's assembly

They are recruited among persons (mostly veterans) from journalism and other areas of civil society

Judges are appointed by the Board of the Council; media representatives are chosen by Parliamentary Ombudsman and Chair of the Bar Association; representatives of the media are chosen by the companies / organizations that constitute the Association of the Council

Council members are elected by the board of the Foundation

Readers' representatives are chosen by election, every 3 years at the General Council, the others are nominated by their respective organizations

An independent Appointment Panel (consisting of 2 Board members and 5 external members) selects new Board members

How many complaints commission members decide on each single complaint?

All 5 members

One Senate: 10 members + 1 chair

All 36 members

20 Council members

9 members

All 10 members

All 15 members

6 members (2 journalists, 2 media representatives, 2 members of the public)

All 11 members

All 17 members

4 members of the council: the chair, 1 editor, 1 journalist, 1 member from the public

All 10 members

Chair + 13 council members

30 council members

All 9 members

One Council of 12 members (except for data-related matters, 10 member Council)

3 people from the list: one picked by the complainant, one by the media outlet, and one by the press council

All 5 members

The Press Ombudsman

All 36 members

All 4 members

5 members: Chair/deputy, two journalist members and two external members (1 expert + 1 citizen)

All 7 members

All 7 members

At least 7 members

All 9 members

All 11 members

All 14 members

Group of 12: one judge; 6 media representatives; 5 representatives of the public

7 members (5 media professionals, 2 representatives of the public)

All 40 members

At least 3 members: Chair + at least 2 members of the Board

Do the members of the complaints commission receive any financial compensation?

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

€50/meeting

Theoretically, a sitting fee of €30 per meeting (which no member asks for) + travel expenses for freelance journalists

Only external members and freelance journalists, €35 per meeting

€100/meeting, plus hotel/travel costs

Professional directors are not paid; public directors receive a fee of about €1350 per year

Transportation fee, hotel and expenses covered

Members are entitled to a sitting fee, but in practice the members do not ask for them

€430-730/session + expenses

Chair gets symbolic fee of €156/month

Council members get €50 + transport costs for each meeting

Compensation for transport and hotel fees (for members from outside the capital)

Transportation and hotel expenses covered

About €107 per case

Press Ombudsman is full-time employee

Travel expenses + presence fee (vice-chair: €113,45 , regular members €45,80

€90 / month per member

Head of the Council receives €3800/year, lay members receive €270/meeting

A €250 sitting fee plus reimbursement for travel expenses

Members can have their transportation fees covered

Transportation expenses covered

Chair of the Council receives €5000/year plus sitting fees; judges receive €4000/year plus sitting fees; representatives of the public receive €180/meeting; representatives of the media receive €30/meeting

100CHF per year, 150CHF sitting fee + transportation

4500 pound/year + sitting fee of 100 pound/meeting + expenses

Is it formally possible that one or both parties are invited to an oral hearing as part of the complaints process?

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

There is a possibility to hear complainants and/or media, if necessary

The media are always invited. In case the complaint concerns someone personally affected by the coverage, the complainant is invited as well.

Both parties are heard together by the secretary-general and the three members who prepare the case for the full council

When the case is complicated and the Council needs extra input, a hearing may be organized

Both the complainant and the journalist/editor-in-chief can be heard, but this is not mandatory

However, this is very rare

If a case keeps dragging on, the media can be invited for a hearing

There is a possibility to invite either the complainant, a journalist/editor, or an expert to the decision-making meeting for their input.

There is a public discussion of the case, in which both parties can present their viewpoint

There is a possibility to hear the parties, but this is rarely done in practice

However, organizing a hearing is rarely done

However, this happens very rarely

Both parties are invited to the committee to provide information

The parties are invited to the public hearing of the case

However, this happens very rarely

However, this happens very rarely

Both the complainant and the journalist/editor-in-chief are heard

Both the complainants and complainees can be heard orally, but that is seldom the case

Parties may be heard for cross-examination (in cases in which the facts are disputed)

Is it possible that the decision contains a dissenting opinion?

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

But not in practice

A dissenting opinion may be included if there are major disagreements, but this happens only very rarely

A dissenting opinion is possible, but rare

Happens only rarely

A dissenting opinion is possible, but rare

Complaints are only decided by the Press Ombudsman in first instance

But this never happened in the history of the Council

A dissenting opinion is possible, but rare

A dissenting opinion is possible, but rare

We regularly have dissenting opinions in the decision

Is the government involved in the complaints handling procedure?

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Is it possible for either party to appeal the complaints committee's decision?

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

In case of an appeal, which people make the new decision?

A specialized commission for each decision, which consists of three media editors, members of the Council's Assembly, and Executive director of the Council

Six ex-members of the Council

The full council

The Board of the Council

13 Council members: 7 from the public, 6 from media industry (5 from media outlets, 1 from journalist union)

Who selects the people who make the new decision?

The managing board

The members of this committee are selected by the Board of Directors of the organization

Members from the media are nominated by their respective organization (3 nominated by the union of journalists, 3 by the media publishers, 1 by the public broadcaster, 2 from commercial tv stations, 1 from commercial radio, and 2 from online media). These members choose the 5 civil society members

The six board members are chosen among the editors-in-chief who are member of the organization

Groups (types) of media nominate representatives; journalist union holds internal competition; for the members from the public, a call is publicly advertised, and the selection is done by the Appointments Committee

Complaints Consequences Toggle

Does the complaints commission's decision indicate the severity of the breach?

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

No, the commission only distinguishes between 'upheld' and 'not upheld' complaints

Not upheld; minor breach; breach

No, the commission only distinguishes between 'upheld' and 'not upheld' complaints

No, the commission only distinguishes between 'upheld' and 'not upheld' complaints

No, the commission only distinguishes between 'upheld' and 'not upheld' complaints

No, the commission only distinguishes between 'upheld' and 'not upheld' complaints

Yes, the commission distinguishes between two levels of severity. The Council may decide to dismiss, uphold, or dismiss the complaint with reservations

A complaint is either not upheld, it is considered a minor breach, it is considered a serious breach, or severe blame is given

A complaint is either not upheld, a warning is given, a severe warning is given, or it is decided that there was a serious breach

No, the commission only distinguishes between 'upheld' and 'not upheld' complaints

No, the commission only distinguishes between 'upheld' and 'not upheld' complaints

A complaint is either not upheld, it is upheld, or a severe reprimand is given

No, the commission only distinguishes between 'upheld' and 'not upheld' complaints

No, the commission only distinguishes between 'upheld' and 'not upheld' complaints

A complaint is either not upheld, an advisory notice is issued, the commission voices its disapproval, or the commission issues a reprimand

No, the commission only distinguishes between 'upheld' and 'not upheld' complaints

A complaint is either not upheld, the commission issues a warning, it is considered a serious breach, or it is considered a very serious breach

No, the commission only distinguishes between 'upheld' and 'not upheld' complaints

No, the commission only distinguishes between 'upheld' and 'not upheld' complaints

No, the commission only distinguishes between 'upheld' and 'not upheld' complaints

No, the commission only distinguishes between 'upheld' and 'not upheld' complaints

No, the commission only distinguishes between 'upheld' and 'not upheld' complaints

Yes, the commission distinguishes between two levels of severity

No, the commission only distinguishes between 'upheld' and 'not upheld' complaints

A complaint is either not upheld, the commission issues a caution, the commission can issue its concern, or the commission issues a reprimand

No, the commission only distinguishes between 'upheld' and 'not upheld' complaints

The commission distinghuishes between three levels of severity

No, the commission only distinguishes between 'upheld' and 'not upheld' complaints

No, the commission only distinguishes between 'upheld' and 'not upheld' complaints

Yes, the commission distinghuishes between two levels of severity

No, the commission only distinguishes between 'upheld' and 'not upheld' complaints

Is it possible to sanction the media or journalist for an upheld complaint?

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

Disbarment from the journalists' association for current members; up to 2 year membership ban for non-members

A sanction for the journalist is theoretically possible, but has never been given in the history of the council

Journalists could be banned from the association / union

It is possible to sanction fines, corrections, and apologies

Are there any financial consequences for the media or the journalist when it is deemed to have breached a journalistic principle?

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

However, upheld decisions may indirectly influence the government's willingness to co-finance media content of media outlets.

When a complaint is upheld, media have to pay a handling fee. This fee amounts to 13000 SEK (ex VAT) for media with < 10.000 copies, 32000 SEK (ex VAT) > 10.000 copies. Independent online magazines pay 13.000 SEK (ex VAT)

The fines amount to a maximum of 1% of the publisher's annual turnover, capped at 1 million pound

Does the council require or expect media to publish (a summary of) their decision when a complaint was upheld?

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

Sometimes

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

If the upheld complaint concerns someone who was NOT personally affected (which is rare)

In some cases, media outlets are asked to publish the decision (but not by default)

This is decided on a case-by-case basis

In case of a reprimand, the media should publish about the decision

Does the council require or expect media to publish (a summary of) their decision when a complaint was not upheld?

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Does the council specify how fast a decision should be published?

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

14 days

Within 14 days

Within 7 days after the Council has sent the decision to the media outlet

Within a week

Within 30 days after the complaint was upheld

As soon as possible

Within 10 days

Immediately

Within 7 days

Promptly

Within 3 weeks after the decision has been made

Print newspapers and online media should publish the decision within 5 days, a weekly magazine within 10 days

In the earliest possible issue of the media in question

Within two weeks

Promptly

By date of publication of decision

Does the council specify how prominent a decision should be published?

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

It should be as prominent as the original article

For print media, it should be on a ‘visible spot’. For news websites, the decision has to be on the home page for at least 24 hours, it has to be linked to the original publication, and it should remain on the website for at least 1 year

It should be on the front page of the website for at least 48 hours, and there should be a permanent reference under the archived article / content and/or on the Facebook page of the program that is the subject of the complaint

A decision should be published in the space normally used for corrections, and the decision, or a link, should be appended to the article if the article is online.

Similar prominent place as original article

However, websites need to place a link to the decision next to the original article

Due prominence on the website; the media should publish the decision without further comment

It has to have the same amount of exposure

In print, the decision has to be given due prominence. For news websites, the decision has to be on the homepage for at least 24 hours.

In a similar way as the publication that was complained about

Though it is recommended that the media publish it in the same section as the original publication

These are set out in each individual case

Does the council specify in what form a decision should be published?

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

The Senate decides this for each case

The decision summary has to be published in the same media form as the original publication, and/or on the website of the media outlet

It always has to be on the website

A decision should be in the media form or all media forms in which the article appeared.

All forms in which the original article was published

All forms in which the original article was published

Has to be in the same outlet type that the decision was about; if the medium has a website, it should be published online as well

An 'appropriate form'; in the case of news websites, the original article should be edited to include a link to the announcement of the reprimand

It has to have the same amount of exposure

Same as publication. When a print article was also published online, the latter should be annotated to indicate the decision

Same media form as the original publication

It has to be in the same media form as the original publication

Same media form as the original publication

These are set out in each individual case

How often do media outlets publish the (summary of a) decision, when a complaint about them was upheld?

Never

Always

Always

Always

Sometimes

Sometimes

Always

Often

Never

Always

Always

Always

Never

Often

Always

Often

Always

Always

Always

Often

Sometimes

Always

Often

Always

Often

Sometimes

Always

Always

Never

Always

Have decisions of the council ever been used in a legal court case?

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Code of Ethics Toggle

What is the name of the Code of Ethics in the media council's native language?

Kodi i Etikes

Ehrenkodex

Code van de Raad voor de Journalistiek

Code de déontologie journalistique

Kodeks za štampu i online medije

Етичен кодекс (Etisjen Kodeks)

The NNC does not have its own code of ethics. We hold members accountable to the ethical guidelines they establish for themselves

Guide de Déontologie

Kodeks časti hrvatskih novinara

Kodika Dimisiografikis Deontologias

Vejledning om god presseskik

Eesti ajakirjanduseetika koodeks

Journalistin ohjeet

Three Charters are used: Charte du SNJ, Déclaration de Munich, Charte Mondiale

ქარტიის (Charter)

Pressekodex

Etikai kodex

Siðareglur Blaðamannafélags Íslands

Code of Practice

Kodi i Mediave të Shkruara të Kosovës

Code de déontologie

Leidraad

Кодекс на новинарите на македонија (Code of Journalists of Macedonia)

Ver Varsam-plakaten

Kodeks novinara Srbije

Etický kódex

Kodeks novinarjev Slovenije

Codi Deontològic

Publicitetsregler

Journalistenkodex

Basın Meslek İlkeleri

Standards Code

Which provision of the Code of Ethics is most often complained about or found to have been breached most often?

Factual accuracy

Factual accuracy

Factual accuracy

Factual accuracy

Hate Speech

Discrimination

Factual accuracy

Dignity and public image

Factual accuracy

Factual accuracy

Factual accuracy

Correction of Errors

Factual accuracy

Factual accuracy

Prejudice

Factual accuracy

Prejudice

Factual accuracy

Factual accuracy

Prejudice

Factual accuracy

Factual accuracy

Obligation to be critical of sources

Right to reply

Factual accuracy

Right to reply

Factual accuracy

Complaints are not considered on the basis of the specific guidelines

Factual accuracy

Dignity and public image

Factual accuracy

Who is responsible for writing or updating Code?

Albanian Media Institution, in cooperation with the Press Council

The Board of the Council

Council members

The annual meeting of the Association

The Press Council itself

The GPR (pour Guide, Processus et Règlements) committee, consisting of 6 members + secretary-general and president

The General Assembly of the assocation

The Danish Union of Journalists and the Danish Media Association

Board of the News Media Association

The annual meeting of the Association

The assembly of the Charter

The General Assembly of the Press Council

The Board of the Council prepares, the General Assembly has to accept it

The General Assembly of the Union (held annually)

Code Committee

Board of the organization

General Assembly of the Council

The Association of Journalists and the Macedonian Media Institute

Board of the Norwegian Press Association

Journalists' associations

The Board of the Council

Proposed changes to the Code have to be approved by general assembly of the Council

The journalists' association

Board of the Association

Board of the Foundation

The Supreme Council (40 members) and the General Assembly (comprising all members)

Code Committee

When was the latest update to the Code of Ethics?

2018

2019

2019

2015

2011

Never

2019

2009

2013

2010

2014

2017

1991

2019

2019

2006

2019

Never

2013

2017

2019

2016

2020

Never

2019

Never

What was changed in the latest update to the Code of Ethics?

Online Media Guideline

Victim Reporting Guideline

Jurisprudence Update

Digital Environment

Small Correction / Wording update

Online Media Guideline

Court Reporting Guideline

Children & Minors Reporting Guideline

Hate Speech Definition

News Media Definition

Jurisprudence Update

Small Correction / Wording update

Error Correction Clarification

Small Correction / Wording update

Suspects and Offenders Reporting Guideline

Small Correction / Wording update

Suicide Reporting Guideline

Online Media Guideline

Court Reporting Guideline

Whistleblower / Source Protection

Digital Environment

Whistleblower / Source Protection

Media Environment

Small Correction / Wording update

Error Correction Clarification

Privacy Guideline

Digital Environment

Small Correction / Wording update

Small Correction / Wording update

Error Correction Clarification

Were any guidelines added in the latest update to the Code of Ethics?

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

No

A guideline about how to report on suicide

Guideline about the correction of errors, about op-eds, right to reply, and privacy

Guideline specifying gender equality (next to discrimination), reporting from courts, and reporting on violent extremism and terrorism

A guideline about de-indexing, anonymization, or unpublishing of a particular journalistic production

A guideline about the coverage of suicide

An article about online media outlets

The addition of a chapter about prevention of corruption and conflict of interest

Guidelines were added to guide ethical reporting online

What could be triggers to update the Code of Ethics?

Needs of Profession

Feedback from Senate

Controversial Issues

Legal or Code Discrepancies

Legal or Code Discrepancies

Audience Feedback

Technological Changes

Decision of the Association

Societal Changes

Legislative Changes

Issues in complaint-handling process

Ethics Committee Recommendation

Societal Changes

No Trigger

Legal or Code Discrepancies

Audience Feedback

Technological Changes

Decision of the Association

Decision of the Association

Legal or Code Discrepancies

Legal or Code Discrepancies

Media Landscape Changes

Decision of the Association

Issues in complaint-handling process

Legislative Changes

Needs of Profession

Issues in complaint-handling process

Legal or Code Discrepancies

Decision of the Association

Societal Changes

Technological Changes

Media Landscape Changes

Issues in complaint-handling process

Council Guidelines added to Code

Societal Changes

Technological Changes

Decision of the Association

Societal Changes

Decision of the Association

Do you publish guidelines or statements that explain, interpret or contextualize the principles in the Code of Ethics?

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

The leaflet of the Code of Ethics contains guidelines that specify/explain the principles

Council meetings

The Council has developed guidelines about matters like reporting on court cases, gender issues, extreme violence and terrorism

The Council has created some guides about how to report on various specific topics

The Ethical Code contains an addendum with explanatory guidelines

Annual reports may include a note about some issue that came up

The Council can write statements about the Code which specify guidelines for certain situations or contexts

The Council has developed guidelines based on its jurisprudence

There are guidelines that explain how to apply the general principles. These guidelines are part of the Ethical Code

The Council has guidelines to explain the code of ethics. An ethical framework for online journalism is in the planning.

There are extra explanations / best practices guides on how certain guidelines ought to be implemented

There are booklets that explain in depth one or more points of the Code, like about discrimination of people, gender-based violence, or conflict of interest

The Council maintains guidelines that explain how the general principles should be interpreted

There is a document that provides guidance for understanding and implementing the Code

Has the Code of Ethics been amended to take user-generated content into account?

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Has the Code of Ethics been amended to take rectification of online errors into account?

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Has the Code of Ethics been amended to take responsibility for hyperlinks or hyperlinked content into account?

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Does the Code of Ethics mention who is resposible for embedded content (like a tweet or Instagram post)?

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Has the Code of Ethics been amended to take responsibility for use of social media by journalists or media outlets into account?

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

Does the Code of Ethics say anything about whether or not the comment section should be monitored and, or, moderated

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Has the Code of Ethics been amended to take responsibility for manipulation, enhancement or cropping of photos into account?

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Has the Code of Ethics been amended to take responsibility for right to be forgotten or digital archives into account?

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Has the Code of Ethics been amended to take responsibility for use of information or audio visual material from social media, for example, the use of pictures from personal social media accounts, into account?

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Has the Code of Ethics been amended to take responsibility for data journalism and use of algorithms into account?

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Has the Code of Ethics been amended to take responsibility for use of AI or Robot journalism into account?

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Public Engagement Toggle

Is the media council engaged in activities to inform the public about journalistic ethics?

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

The Council participates in events organized by peer organizations ethical journalism, the Code of Ethics, and professionalism in the media

The Council organizes events about media ethics-related topics, its representatives give interviews on decisions and media ethics, and the Council educates by doing role plays at schools

When invited as speaker (in academia, media, workshops)

The council participates in conferences for the general public, provides permanent training seminars, has meetings with civil society associations, answers to questions from the public, and participates in media education activities

Spokesperson of the Council can do this when invited by media, for conferences, or for university lectures

The NNC does not sponsor initiatives for the general public. Ethics promotion is delivered by publicizing decisions, newsletters to members, and through social media

On invitation, representatives can speak about ethics to media outlets or in an academic / college setting (but the representatives refrain from talking about specific cases)

The association does this, not the complaints committee

Representatives can give presentations upon request; or they can participate when other organizations organize something; specific leaflets for victims of crimes

By invitation, a representive of the Council can speak at public events

The Council organizes at least one conference each year

There is an ongoing project in collaboration with UNICEF about media literacy

On request, representatives of the Council can give lectures or make appearances in the media

The Council itself does not organize any events, but on invitation, its chair and the Ombudsman can speak about ethics in journalism (for example, in academic settings or in broadcast media interviews)

Representatives are invited on TV and radio programmes to promote the work of the Council, and to discuss on issues related to media scene; also, the Council organizes events in several cities around Kosovo and speak with the general public about press ethics

Sponsor activities where journalists, teachers and students do a yearly project; speaking at universities, at public forums; advisory function in audiovisual regulator + archival law organizations

On invitation, representatives can give speeches or will join debates in public forums; representatives give lectures about the Council in academic settings

The Council organizes different kinds of events across the country, discussions / debates with universities, the CSO sector and other institutions

From time to time, the Association does engage in public activities, mostly with respect to issues around the freedom of the press

By organizing complaints commission sessions outside the capital, by appearing in the media, holding round tables with citizens, participating in other organizations' public events to promote self-regulation, organizing bi-yearly press conferences to review work, recording and publishing unedited versions of complaints Commission meetings, and answering questions from citizens

The Council issues statements about contemporary issues in the media, and representatives give lectures and participate in events upon invitation

The association organizes public events and debates about ethics in journalism

We give speeches, present documents relating to media ethics, and are invited as guests to talk about ethics in journalism

The Media Ombudsman gives lectures and is often invited to give interviews about media ethics; he participates in public debates; and he writes blogs and makes a podcast about about media ethics

When invited as speaker (in academia, media, workshops)

By organizing trainings and seminars/conferences

Organizing public events and debates, at least 2 lectures/month, podcasts and webinars, annual Trust in Journalism conference

Does the media council use social media?

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Youtube and Instagram used to share video clips with excerpts from media or with visuals related to ongoing projects

Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook used to share pictures from events and to share decisions and re-post the publications from media about that decision

Twitter used to share complaint decisions

Twitter is used to share decisions and observations

Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram used to share news items from the main website, information about running projects, and corrections that media outlets have issued

Yes, we use Twitter and Facebook to share Council's decisions and to provide our followers with information about journalistic

Twitter is used to announce that there are new decisions published

The assocation uses Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, but not for the complaints committee specifically

Twitter is used to communicate decisions

Facebook and Twitter to share decisions and answer questions from the public

Twitter is used to share viewpoints on media ethics policy, as well as news about developments and events in the media sector

Twitter used to share interesting excerpts from and about news media

Facebook for disseminating news about the council’s activities and posting decisions that were reached

Twitter used to share complaint decisions

Facebook and Twitter are used to share decisions and opinions; Instagram and YouTube page are used to share footage of events

Facebook used to post news about the journalism sector, Instagram is used for pictures of events

We use Facebook, Instagram, and twitter to announce complaints commission meetings, to publish our decisions, to promote the work of the Media Council, and answer questions from the public.

The council uses Twitter and Facebook to disseminate its activities, complaints resolutions, and answers questions from the public

Twitter used to send notifications when new decisions are published

Twitter and Facebook used to share decisions and announcements

Yes, Facebook and Twitter are used to share the decisions of the Council, and to share public statements regarding media freedom and press ethics

Twitter used to share events, media appearances, and news about media self-regulation

Is the media council engaged in activities aimed at educating or informing journalists about ethics?

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

The Council goes to newsrooms and universities/schools to inform them about (challenges to) media ethics

The Council organizes trainings and regularly visits the editorial departments

The Council can organize workshops about its procedures on request, but media companies are very much aware of the importance and educate about ethics themselves nowadays

The Council organizes conferences, provides workshops about ethics in newsrooms, and gives ethical advice to journalists

The Council organizes (online) school for media ethics, and writes recommendations to explain how to report on violent extremism, how to report on children

The Council would like to do this, but there are no resources available to do so

We are involved with the Canadian Association of Journalists ethics advisory committee, and take part in student and journalism seminars and conferences when possible.

Representatives of the press council give presentations at conferences and organize workshops. For new members, an on-premises training in ethics is offered for their journalists. Sometimes, representatives are invited for workshops or trainings at media outlets.

The association does this, not the complaints committee

By organizing workshops about how to cover specific issues

No activities organized, but representatives may take part in conferences, workshops, academic lectures

Representatives of the Council may join workshops, seminars,and teaching about journalism ethics

Q&A sessions with journalists or editors to talk about or give advice about ethics in journalism

Only in reactive fashion: answering questions from journalists about ethics, giving workshops or lectures by request

Workshops for young journalists; legal advice; ethical advice; best practices recommendations about issues like migration issue coverage, election coverage, and reporting about private individuals.

Organizing seminars about specific topics; give talks on invitation; active in organization of media ombudsmen

The Council organizes workshops, roundtables, conferences, and holds informal monthly meetings with journalists

The Press Council provides training that journalists with a press card are required to take

On invitation, representatives of the organization can explain the procedures of the Council in newsrooms

Organizing events to present findings and adjudications to journalists; communicating reports, statements and guidelines to journalists and editors directly; invite journalists and editors to present best practices to peers

The Council organizes workshops and courses in newsrooms, at universities, and at the Institute of Journalism

In addition to the events aimed at a general audience, we also hold training sessions for journalists.

The association participates in projects with other civil society organisations about specific issues, such as the representation of elderly people in the media, about how to report on suicide, and about how domestic violence should be covered in the media

Via seminars and conferences

Not organized by press council itself, but the Ombudsman does participate in workshops and courses for journalists on invitation

The Press Council provides education for journalists

Via training seminars

Workshops (for member organizations) about different subjects related to ethics

Does the media council make efforts to lobby the government or political parties?

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

The Council tries to raise awareness for issues of press freedom with opposition parties

Occasionally when legislation/regulation is planned to be introduced that might affect press freedom

When needed, the Council tries to be part of the debate about media policy

The association tries to affect government policy towards the media, but so far with limited success

The Press Council lobbies for better media legislation

News Media Association does this, not the press council itself

However, the Press Council gives their input when new legislation is drafted

By giving expert opinion in the policy making process to warrant the freedom of the press

Indirectly – for instance regarding reform of defamation act.

The organization tries to lobby for better media legislation

There is no lobbying, but the Press Council is the official conversation partner of government and it has to be consulted for things like media legislation

The Council is involved in activities related to media reforms

Via the Norwegian Press Association of which the Council is a part

The media council lobbies the government regarding government financing of media content in the public interest. In addition, the media council aims to make the acceptance of its jurisdiction obligatory for media seeking public funding.

The Press Council provides input when amendments to the media laws are proposed

The Press Council lobbies for better media legislation

Through public statements and individual and collective meetings

Impress tries to reach out to politicians and policy makers to promote media policy that enhances or aims towards raising ethical standards of the press

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